Chapter 2

How to Create a Lesson Plan


Ever taught a class where you sensed your students feeling adrift, wondering, "What are we supposed to learn today?"
The truth is, the effectiveness of the learning process depends on a well-crafted lesson plan. A lesson plan is much more than just a piece of paper with bullet points. Think of it as the roadmap to a class where your students are hooked from start to finish. Hence, it becomes crucial to develop well-structured lesson plans to ensure that students grasp concepts and ideas in the most comprehensive manner possible.
This blog will help you make every lesson engaging and structured. Let's explore the secrets of 'how to make a lesson plan' that's super easy to follow and understand. So let's get started with a visual interpretation of a lesson plan.
is everyone ready to explore lesson plan format and key elements of a lesson plan
This template can be adjusted and customized to fit the specific needs and style of your teaching and the content of your lesson.
Now that you have a visual interpretation, let’s understand how to make a lesson plan in detail. It’s time to closely examine each section and each component of a lesson plan.

Steps to Creating an Effective Lesson Plan

1. Lesson Title

 how to write lesson title section in a lesson plan
The "Lesson Title" is the concise and descriptive name that you give to your lesson. It should clearly indicate what the lesson is about. This title is the first thing that will help you start your lesson. So, it should be both engaging and informative. So, how do you stay clear from vague titles in your classroom? Here are some tips:

a. Reflect the Content

The title should give a clear idea of what the lesson will cover. It should be relevant to the subject matter and objectives of the lesson.

b. Be Engaging

Try to make the title interesting and engaging to pique students' curiosity and motivate them to participate in the lesson. The more engaging the titles, the more eager the students.
The title should give a clear idea of what the lesson will cover. It should be relevant to the subject matter and objectives of the lesson.

c. Be Specific

Precision is your compass. Zoom in on a specific aspect or topic within the vast sea of your subject. A well-defined title sets the course for focused and effective learning. Avoid vague or overly broad titles. Instead, focus on a specific aspect or topic within the broader subject.

2. Grade Level

is everyone ready to explore lesson plan format and key elements of a lesson plan
Moving on to the "Grade Level" section, it specifies the educational level for which the lesson is intended. It's important to clearly indicate the target grade level to ensure that the lesson aligns with the student's developmental stage, prior knowledge, and skill level. Whether it's the foundational years of elementary school or the more advanced stages of high school, clarity is key.
Here's what you need to consider when filling in this section:

a. Grade or Age Group

Indicate the specific grade (e.g., 4th grade, 10th grade) or age group (e.g., elementary, middle school, high school) for which the lesson is designed.

b. Prior Knowledge

Consider the knowledge and skills that students at this grade level are expected to possess. Your lesson should build upon or reinforce what they've already learned. In simple words ask yourself, What have your students learned before? Your lesson is the bridge to the next level. Connect the dots and build that knowledge pyramid.

c. Appropriate Content

Ensure that the lesson's content, activities, and materials are age-appropriate and align with the curriculum standards for the specified grade level. It's not just about learning; it's about crafting an experience tailored to their age and understanding.

d. Cognitive Development

Take into account the cognitive development stage of the students. Lessons for younger students may focus more on concrete and tangible concepts, while lessons for older students can delve into abstract or complex ideas. Tailor your lesson to match their cognitive pace for an effective and engaging educational experience.

3. Subject or Topic

is everyone ready to explore lesson plan format and key elements of a lesson plan
In our quest to understand how to make a lesson plan, the next key component is the subject section. The "Subject" section specifies the core subject or topic that the lesson will cover. It's a critical component of your lesson plan because it's more than just conveying information; it's about creating a synchronized learning experience that resonates with your students.
Here's how to address this section effectively:

a. Clear Identification

Clearly state the subject or topic that your lesson will address. This should be specific and directly related to the content you intend to teach.

b. Alignment with Curriculum

Ensure that the subject you choose aligns with the curriculum standards or learning objectives for the grade level or course.

c. Relevance

The chosen subject should be relevant and appropriate for the grade level and the student's developmental stage. It should also align with any broader educational goals or themes.

d. Conciseness

Keep the subject description concise but comprehensive enough to convey the main focus of the lesson.

4. Duration

duration section in a lesson plan
The "Duration" section specifies the estimated amount of time that the lesson will take to complete. It's essential to provide a clear time frame for the lesson to ensure effective time management. Here's how to approach this section:

a. Time Allocation

Estimate the total duration of the lesson, including the time for different activities, discussions, and assessments. Consider how long each part of the lesson will take. Additionally, be mindful of the ebb and flow of activities, discussions, and assessments.

b. Realistic Estimate

Ensure that your time estimate allows sufficient time for students to engage with the content, participate in activities, and complete any assessments or assignments. In simple words, keep it realistic – neither too rushed nor too sluggish. Ensure there's ample time for engagement, questions, and the joy of learning!

c. Flexibility

The chosen subject should be relevant and appropriate for the grade level and the student's developmental stage. It should also align with any broader educational goals or themes.

d. Alignment with Schedule

Align your time estimate with the cadence of class periods. If a class typically spans 45 minutes, let your lesson waltz within that timeframe. It’s about fitting seamlessly into the schedule while delivering a memorable learning experience.

e. Include Breaks

If your lesson is longer, consider incorporating short breaks to help students stay engaged and focused. Remember, it's not just about the minutes on the clock; it's about creating a rhythm that keeps students energized and focused.

5. Objective

  how to make objective section in a lesson plan
The "Objective" section is a crucial element when pondering upon how to make a lesson plan. This section outlines the specific learning outcomes you aim to achieve by the end of the lesson. These objectives section provides clear expectations for what should be accomplished. Here's how to effectively define the objectives:

a. Clarity

Ensure that your objectives are clear, concise, and easy to understand. Use action verbs that describe what students will be able to do or understand. For instance, instead of saying "understand photosynthesis," try "Identify and explain three key stages of Photosynthesis."

b. Measurability

Make your objectives measurable so that you can assess whether they have been achieved. Use criteria that can be observed, assessed, or tested.

c. Alignment

Ensure that your objectives align with the subject matter and content covered in the lesson. They should also align with broader educational standards or learning goals. For example, if you're teaching about literary devices, an aligned objective could be "Identify and analyze two instances of symbolism in a given text."

d. Realistic Expectations

Set objectives that are attainable within the given lesson duration and with the resources available. Objectives should challenge students but not be overly ambitious.

e. Relevance

Objectives should be relevant to the overall learning goals and should answer the question, "What should students gain from this specific lesson?" For a math lesson, a relevant objective could be "Apply multiplication skills to solve a real-life problem, like calculating the total cost of items in a shopping scenario.

6. Materials

is everyone ready to explore lesson plan format and key elements of a lesson plan
The "Materials" section lists all the materials, resources, or technology that will be required to effectively deliver the lesson. This section helps ensure that educators have everything they need to conduct the lesson smoothly. Think of it as gathering all the props and tools needed for a blockbuster performance.
Here's how to approach it:

a. Comprehensive List

Create a comprehensive list of all the materials needed for the lesson, including textbooks, handouts, equipment, technology, supplies, and any other resources.

b. Specifics

Be specific about the materials required. For instance, if you need a specific book, mention its title and edition. If you need a projector, specify the type.

c. Preparation

Mention whether these materials need any special preparation or setup before the lesson. For example, if you need to print handouts or set up a computer, note it here. If technology is involved, mention any software that needs installing or equipment setup.

d. Availability

Ensure that the listed materials are readily available or can be accessed in advance. If something is not readily available, have a plan. Consider alternatives or make arrangements to acquire the materials before your class.

e. Accessibility

Consider the accessibility of materials for all students, including those with disabilities. Ensure that necessary accommodations are made if certain students require alternative formats or resources.
By checking off these items, you're not just ready for the lesson, you're set for a standing ovation!

7. Preparation

is everyone ready to explore lesson plan format and key elements of a lesson plan
The "Preparation" section outlines any necessary steps or tasks that need to be completed before the lesson begins. This section helps educators ensure that everything is in order and ready for a smooth delivery of the lesson. Here's how to address it effectively:

a. Advance Planning

Identify and describe any specific preparations that should be done in advance of the lesson. This may include setting up equipment, printing handouts, or arranging the classroom in a particular way. List the tasks out, so there are no last-minute hiccups.

b. Timeline

If there are time-sensitive preparations, specify when each task should be completed. Consider this your lesson countdown. This ensures that you allocate enough time for each task and that everything is ready when the lesson starts.

c. Resources

Mention any resources, materials, or personnel needed for these preparations. For instance, if you need assistance from a lab technician to set up a Science experiment, note it here.

d. Checklist

A checklist is your best friend. Keep it simple and visual. As each task gets done, check it off. It's a satisfying way to see that everything is in order.

e. Contingency Plans

If there are potential issues or obstacles that could affect the preparations, briefly describe any contingency plans you have in place to address them. Expect the unexpected and keep your Plan B ready to roll!

Pro Tip

Seek out a mentor who can provide ongoing support and guidance to improve your teaching career and lesson plans. Click here to avail free one-on-one mentoring with experienced Suraasa mentors today!

8. Instructional Plan or Teaching Sequence

This section is central to the lesson plan as it outlines the step-by-step approach to delivering the lesson effectively. It includes various sub-sections, which are:

1. Introduction of chapter and topic

is everyone ready to explore lesson plan format and key elements of a lesson plan
The "Introduction" part of the instructional plan sets the stage for the lesson. It's where you engage students, create interest, and provide context for what they are about to learn. Here's how to approach it:
a. Engagement: Begin by engaging students' curiosity or interest in the topic. You can use anecdotes, real-world examples, thought-provoking questions, or multimedia to capture their attention.
b. Objective Statement: Clearly state the learning objective(s) of the lesson at the beginning to provide students with a clear sense of what they will accomplish.
c. Relevance: Explain why the lesson is important and how it connects to previous learning or real-life applications. This helps students see the value of the lesson.
d. Agenda: Provide an overview of what the lesson will cover and how it will be structured. This helps students understand the flow of the lesson.
For example, if you are teaching a History lesson on World War II, your introduction might include a captivating image from the era and a clear statement of the lesson's objective to explore key events and their impact.

2. Content Presentation

Content Presentation section in a lesson plan
The "Content Presentation" section outlines how you will deliver the main content of the lesson. This can involve various methods such as lectures, discussions, demonstrations, or multimedia presentations. Here's how to detail this section:
a. Teaching Method: Specify the teaching method(s) you will use, whether it's a lecture, group discussion, hands-on demonstration, or a combination of methods.
b. Content Sequencing: Organize the content logically, starting with foundational concepts and building up to more complex ideas. Use clear explanations, visuals, and examples to enhance understanding.
c. Interactivity: Incorporate opportunities for student engagement. Encourage questions, discussions, or activities that involve students actively in the learning process.
d. Use of Resources: If you're using multimedia or other resources, mention how and when you'll integrate them into the presentation.
For instance, if you're teaching a Physics lesson on Newton's laws of motion, your content presentation might include a brief lecture on each law, followed by interactive demonstrations involving objects and motion to illustrate these principles.

3. Activities and Exercises

how to write Activities and exercises section in a lesson plan
The "Activities and Exercises" section outlines the hands-on or interactive elements of the lesson that reinforce learning. Here's how to outline this part:
a. Activity Descriptions: Describe the specific activities or exercises students will participate in. These can include group discussions, problem-solving tasks, experiments, or simulations.
b. Materials: Specify any materials, resources, or technology needed for these activities.
c. Instructions: Provide clear instructions for students on how to carry out the activities. This may include dividing them into groups, assigning roles, or setting time limits.
d. Learning Goals: Explain how each activity or exercise ties back to the lesson's learning objectives. What should students learn or gain from each activity?
For example, if your lesson is about Literary Analysis, the activities and exercises might include small group discussions of a text, where students analyze and discuss the author's use of symbolism.

4. Assessment

Assessment section in a lesson plan
The "Assessment" section outlines how you will gauge student understanding during and at the end of the lesson to measure their learning progress. Here's how to describe this section:
a. Assessment Methods: Specify the assessment methods you will use, such as quizzes, class discussions, group work, or individual assignments.
b. Formative Assessment: Describe how you will conduct formative assessments during the lesson to check for understanding and provide feedback.
c. Summative Assessment: Explain the summative assessment(s) that will be used to evaluate overall student comprehension at the end of the lesson.
d. Scoring and Evaluation: Mention any scoring criteria or rubrics that will be used to evaluate student performance.
For example, if you're teaching a Biology lesson on cell structure, you might use Formative Assessment by asking questions during class discussions. Additionally, you may use a Summative Assessment like a quiz at the end of the lesson to evaluate their knowledge of cell components.

5. Closure

closure section in a lesson plan
The "Closure" section explains how you will conclude the lesson. It serves to summarize key points, reinforce learning, and provide closure to the lesson. Here's how to describe this section:
a. Summary: Summarize the main concepts or takeaways of the lesson. Highlight the most important information or skills that students should remember.
b. Reflection: Encourage students to reflect on what they've learned and how it connects to previous knowledge or future lessons.
c. Link to Next Lesson: If applicable, mention how the current lesson relates to the next lesson or the broader curriculum. Provide a smooth transition to future learning.
d. Questions: Ask open-ended questions to promote discussion and critical thinking. This can help solidify learning and uncover any remaining doubts.
For example, in an English language lesson on writing persuasive essays, your closure might involve summarizing the key components of an effective argument and asking students to consider how they might use these skills in their upcoming essays.
As we've explored the eight key sub-sections comprising the instructional plan, we've laid out a comprehensive roadmap for delivering the lesson effectively. Now, let's transition back to the key sections of the lesson plan.

9. Differentiation

is everyone ready to explore lesson plan format and key elements of a lesson plan
The "Differentiation" section of the lesson plan is where you outline strategies and approaches to accommodate the diverse learning needs of your students. Not all students learn in the same way or at the same pace, so it's important to address these differences and provide support where needed. Here's how to approach this section:

a. Understanding Student Diversity

Begin by acknowledging that students in your class may have varying levels of prior knowledge, abilities, interests, and learning styles. Recognize that diversity is an asset in the classroom.

b. Inclusive Strategies

Describe how you will employ inclusive teaching strategies to ensure that all students have access to the content and can participate in the lesson. This may include techniques such as providing multiple means of representation, engagement, and expression.

c. Accommodations

Detail any accommodations you will make for students with specific needs, such as those with learning disabilities, English language learners, or students who require assistive technology.

d. Extensions

Explain how you will challenge and extend the learning for advanced students who may require additional enrichment or more complex tasks.

e. Grouping

If you plan to use group work or collaborative activities, consider how you will create diverse groups that allow students to learn from and support each other.

f. Assessment Flexibility

Mention how you will adapt assessment methods to accommodate different learning styles and abilities, including alternative assessments for students who may struggle with traditional testing.

10. Homework/Assignments

is everyone ready to explore lesson plan format and key elements of a lesson plan
The "Homework/Assignments" section outlines any tasks, assignments, or homework that students are expected to complete in relation to the lesson. Homework and assignments can serve various purposes, such as reinforcing learning, practicing skills, or extending understanding beyond the classroom. Here's how to address this section:

a. Assignment Description

Clearly specify the details of the homework or assignment, including what students are expected to do, the specific tasks or questions they should address, and any required format (e.g., essay, worksheet, research).

b. Purpose

Explain the educational purpose of the assignment. Is it intended to reinforce concepts from the lesson, encourage independent research, or apply learning to real-world scenarios?

c. Due Date

Provide a due date or deadline for when the assignment should be submitted. Make sure it aligns with the lesson schedule and allows students ample time to complete the task.

d. Resources

If students need access to specific resources or references to complete the assignment, list them here. This may include textbooks, online sources, or materials covered in previous lessons.

e. Grading Criteria

 If applicable, specify how the assignment will be graded. Mention any criteria, rubrics, or expectations that students should be aware of.

f. Support

Let students know where they can seek help or clarification if they encounter difficulties while working on the assignment. This could include office hours, online resources, or peer support.

11. Reflection

reflection section in a lesson plan
The "Reflection" section is a valuable component of the lesson plan that allows educators to assess the effectiveness of the lesson and consider improvements for future teaching. It involves evaluating what worked well during the lesson and identifying areas where adjustments or changes might be needed. Here's how to approach this section:

a. Observations

Begin by reflecting on what went well during the lesson. Identify aspects of the lesson that were successful in achieving the learning objectives and engaging students.

b. Challenges

Acknowledge any challenges or issues that arose during the lesson. This might include difficulties with certain activities, unexpected questions, or technical problems.

c. Student Engagement

Consider the level of student engagement and participation. Were students actively involved, or did you notice disinterest or distraction?

d. Assessment of Learning

Reflect on whether the assessment methods used were effective in measuring student understanding. Did they accurately gauge what students had learned?

e. Timing

Evaluate whether the timing of various components of the lesson was appropriate. Were you able to cover all planned activities, or did you run out of time?

f. Adjustments

Based on your observations, suggest any adjustments or improvements for future lessons. This might involve modifying teaching methods, revising activities, or addressing specific challenges.

g. Next Steps

Consider how the reflections from this lesson can inform your teaching approach in subsequent lessons. What strategies or changes will you implement in future instruction?
Improve your teaching skills with our free reflective teaching masterclass! Check now for to gain more insights and take your lessons to the next level.

12. Additional Notes

reflection section in a lesson plan
It's now time to explore the last segment to wrap up our discussion on how to make a lesson plan—the Additional Notes section. The "Additional Notes" section provides a space for educators to include any extra information, reminders, or context that may be relevant to the lesson but doesn't fit neatly into the other sections of the lesson plan. This section is flexible and can be used to share any important details or considerations. Here's how to use it effectively:

a. Clarifications

Include any clarifications or additional explanations related to the lesson plan. This could be information about specific terminology, concepts, or procedures that students or other educators might find helpful.

b. Special Considerations

Note any special considerations or circumstances that might impact the lesson. This could include information about students with specific needs, classroom logistics, or upcoming events that might affect the lesson.

c. Reminders

Use this section to include reminders for yourself or others about specific actions or tasks that need attention before, during, or after the lesson. For example, a reminder to set up a particular piece of equipment.

d. Alternative Approaches

If there are alternative approaches or strategies that could be considered for the lesson, you can mention them here for future reference.

e. References

Include any additional references, reading materials, or resources that might be beneficial for further exploration of the topic.

f. Next Steps

Consider how the reflections from this lesson can inform your teaching approach in subsequent lessons. What strategies or changes will you implement in future instruction?

Sample Lesson Plan

Now that you have learned about the essential components of crafting an effective lesson plan, it's time to put the theory into practice.
Explore a sample lesson plan and see how each element seamlessly comes together to create a dynamic and engaging lesson plan. This template can serve as a concrete example, illustrating how to apply the discussed steps and create a comprehensive plan that fits your teaching style and the unique needs of your students.
Ready to bring lesson planning to life? Click here to grab the template for free and have it delivered straight to your inbox!

Bonus: Tips for Crafting Subject-Specific Lesson Plans

Creating effective lesson plans is essential across all subjects, but each discipline comes with its unique considerations. Here are tailored tips on how to write lesson plans for specific subjects, along with advice for new teachers:

Tips for How to Write a Lesson Plan for English

How to Write a Lesson Plan for English

Focus on Core Skills

  • Identify the key language skills you want students to develop, such as reading, writing, listening, and speaking.
  • Align lesson activities with specific language goals to ensure a comprehensive approach.

Incorporate Literature

  • Integrate literary works that resonate with your students to make the learning experience more engaging.
  • Encourage critical thinking and analysis through discussions about themes, characters, and plot structures.

Include Creative Writing

  • Devote time to creative writing exercises that allow students to express themselves.
  • Provide constructive feedback to nurture their writing skills and foster a love for language.

Tips for How to Write a Lesson Plan for Maths

icons related to maths with headings only

Clearly Define Objectives

  • Specify the mathematical concepts and skills students should grasp by the end of the lesson.
  • Break down complex topics into manageable learning objectives.

Utilize Visual Aids

  • Integrate visual representations, charts, and diagrams to enhance understanding of mathematical concepts.
  • Encourage students to create their visual aids to reinforce learning.

Incorporate Real-World Applications

  • Relate mathematical concepts to real-life situations to demonstrate their practical relevance.
  • Design activities that challenge students to apply mathematical principles in problem-solving scenarios.

Tips for How to Write a Lesson Plan for Science

icons related to science with headings only

Hands-On Experiments

  • Prioritize hands-on experiments to make scientific concepts tangible.
  • Ensure safety measures are communicated and followed during practical sessions.

Use Multimedia Resources

  • Integrate videos, simulations, and interactive tools to supplement theoretical explanations.
  • Appeal to various learning styles by incorporating a multimedia approach.

Encourage Inquiry-Based Learning

  • Foster curiosity and critical thinking by structuring lessons around inquiry-based activities.
  • Guide students to ask questions, formulate hypotheses, and conduct investigations.

Tips for How to Write a Lesson Plan for Art

icons related to Art with headings only

Creative Expression

  • Prioritize activities that allow students to express their creativity through various art forms.
  • Provide opportunities for experimentation with different materials and techniques.

Art History Exploration

  • Explore different art movements and styles to broaden students' understanding of artistic traditions.
  • Discuss the cultural and historical context of famous artworks.

Tips for How to Write a Lesson Plan for Physical Education

icons related to PE with headings only

Skill Progression

  • Design lessons that focus on the progressive development of motor skills and physical abilities.
  • Incorporate activities that cater to various fitness levels and interests.

Team Building and Sportsmanship

  • Integrate team sports and cooperative activities to promote teamwork and sportsmanship.
  • Emphasize the importance of fair play and positive attitudes in physical activities.
In summary, including tips for a diverse range of subjects ensures that educators from various disciplines can find valuable insights tailored to their specific teaching contexts. Adjust the list based on the subjects most relevant to your audience and the educational setting.

Wrapping Up!

In conclusion, the lesson plan template you explored provides a systematic and organized approach to teaching. It covers all essential aspects of effective teaching, from the engaging introduction to the well-structured content presentation, the meaningful activities and exercises, and the crucial assessment of student understanding. 
Additionally, it emphasizes the significance of closure to reinforce key points and connect lessons, while differentiation strategies ensure that every student's unique learning needs are considered. Reflective practices embedded in the template enable educators to continuously improve their teaching methods.

Good news!!

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Frequently Asked Questions

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Written By

Simran Agarwal

Simran is a writer here at Suraasa and has formerly worked as a Teacher. She is passionate about learning and making a difference through her words.

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